Free Radicals and Antioxidants <p>Free Radicals and Antioxidants publishes full research papers presenting original, high quality research, critical review articles providing comprehensive analysis of research development within a defined area and editorial commentaries on key topical issues in Free Radical and Antioxidant Biology.</p> en-US (S Chakraborty) (Webmaster) Sat, 17 Dec 2022 02:26:15 -0500 OJS 60 Anticancer Properties and Clinical Trials of Coumarins: A Review <p style="text-align: justify;">Cancer has evolved as one of the most common causes of mortality, worldwide. Though numerous chemotherapeutic treatments are available, their side effects such as cytotoxicity and drug resistance form a big problem during the cancer treatment. Recent studies of anticancer activities conducted on natural products isolated from plants, namely coumarin and related compounds, prove them to be a promising drug candidate in cancer treatments. Efforts made by the scientists to design and develop novel anti-cancer agents using coumarins as lead compounds and study their effectiveness using Structural Activity Relationship is worth appreciating. This review, therefore, focuses on the recent progress in the discovery of coumarin derivatives with potential antitumor activity. It also summarizes their structureactivity relationship, and mechanism of action studies</p> Hazem M Shaheen, Jean Noël Nyemb, Narimane Segueni, Jennifer George, Vishwanath R Patil, Gaber El-Saber Batiha Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 17 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Polarity-dependent Response of Phytochemical Extraction and Antioxidant Potential of Different Parts of Alcea rosea <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Objectives:</strong> <em>Alcea rosea</em> is a good source of medicinlly importeant bioactive phytochemical compounds. The complete extraction of these biochemicals from plant material has remained a problem for the researchers and manufacturers. This study was planned to report the medicinal value of <em>A. rosea</em> and find out the suitable extraction solvent to enhance the extraction yield of its phytochemical compounds and their antioxidant potential. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The powdered samples of the selected parts of <em>A. rosea</em> were extracted in solvents of varying dipole moments (hexane: 0 D, ethyl acetate: 2.8 D, and methanol: 5.1 D). The extracts were screened for the presence of important phytochemicals and analyzed for their phytochemical content and antioxidant potential. <strong>Results:</strong> The studied parts of <em>A. rosea</em> consisted of flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, and cardiac glycosides. The regression analysis showed polarity-dependent significant positive effects (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) on the extract yield, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity in terms of Trolox equivalent total antioxidant activity, ferric reducing power, and nitrogen free radical scavenging activity of the extracts. However, a mixed response of total flavonoids and total tannins content and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of the extracts was observed against solvent polarity. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> A polarity dependent increase in phytochemical content and free radical scavenging capacity was observed. The study suggests that the polar solvents are more suitable to achieve a good extract yield of phytochemicals possessing a strong antioxidant ability and the solvents of medium polarity may be suitable for the extraction of flavonoids and tannins from the studied parts of <em>A. rosea. </em></p> Haq Nawaz, Hira Akram, Qazi Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq, Arslan Khalid, Briha Zainab, Aiman Mazhar Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 17 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Dietary Chlorella vulgaris Supplementation Improves Reproductive Index of Female Rabbits and Protect their Progeny against Oxidative Stress <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background: </strong>Oxidative stress negatively impacts pregnancy and its outcomes; hence, its avoidance through gestational antioxidant intakes is a desired nutrition-reproduction practices. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Female rabbits (<em>n</em>=40) were divided into 5 groups and supplemented with 0, 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg <em>Chlorella vulgaris</em> biomass per kilogram body weight daily, respectively throughout the gestation period. Upon kindling, kits of the female rabbits (<em>n</em>=75) were randomly selected and monitored from birth till 120 days old. The reproductive performance of the female rabbits was evaluated by computation of their reproductive index, while birth weight, growth rate, oestrogen and testosterone concentrations, oxidative stress biomarkers, and expression of selected functional genes of the progeny were determined. <strong>Results: </strong>The gestational intake of Chlorella vulgaris increased reproductive index of the female rabbits (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05), and it also increases the growth and oxidative stress protection status of the rabbit progeny (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05). Selected functional genes, including Gstp1, Cyp1a1, Ar, Ghr, Il2, and Il6 assessed in the progeny of the supplemented groups were significantly upregulated (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> It was concluded from these results that gestational <em>Chlorella vulgaris </em>biomass intake improved reproductive index of the female rabbits, increased growth and oxidative stress protection in their progeny</p> Akeem Babatunde Sikiru, Arunachalam Arangasamy, Iyabo Comfort Alemede, Sellappan Selvaraju, Stephen S Acheneje Egena, Bala Krishnan Binsila, Ippala Janardhan Reddy, Raghavendra Bhatta Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 17 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Antioxidant Activity of Raw and Roasted Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Skins Extracts <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background: </strong>Peanut skins are a by-product from peanut but with low socio-economic value despite having appreciable amounts of bioactive phytochemicals. Studies are on-going to remove some astringent properties in peanut skins and improve its values. In this study, the <em>in vitro</em> antioxidant activity of raw peanut skins and roasted peanut skins extracts were determined in hydro alcoholic medium. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The raw and roasted peanut skins powders were each subjected to extraction procedure in 70% methanol for 48 hr. The phytochemical screening including total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC, TFC) were determined. The antioxidant activity including DPPH radical scavenging, Fe2+-chelating, ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP), OH- radical scavenging and reducing power assays were determined and compared against standard antioxidants. <strong>Results:</strong> The results showed significantly higher (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) TPC and total antioxidant capacity in the raw extract compared to the roasted extract. The roasted peanut skins extract showed significantly higher (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) DPPH radical, OH- radical scavenging capacity, Fe2+-chelating and ferric reducing antioxidant property compared to the raw peanut skins extract. Both extracts each produced concentration dependent percentage inhibitions which were significantly lower than the antioxidant standards used. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results showed that roasting improved the in vitro antioxidant properties of the peanut skins compared to the raw peanut skins. This could add value to its use as functional food component, antioxidant and in animal feed industries.</p> Chidiebere Emmanuel Ugwu, Stephen Monday Suru Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 17 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0500 The Rat Fallopian Tubes after Erythropoietin Process <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The capability of erythropoietin (EPO) as antioxidant is exported by the results of 2 preliminary studies, totally evaluating 4 histologic variables of endosalpingeal edema (EE) and oviductal congestion (OC) of the first one and endosalpingeal karyorrhexis (EK) and salpingitis (S) of the other one. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The antioxidant capability was evaluated upon the 60<sup>th</sup> reperfusion min (for groups called A and C) and upon the 120<sup>th</sup> reperfusion min (for groups called B and D). The groups A and B were placebo ones, whereas the groups C and D included EPO as antioxidant. Results: The first pillar study showed that EPO has an oxidant non-significant potency for EE and OC together (<em>p</em>-values=0.5971); grade: “without lesions” alterations 0.0363636 [-0.1017439 - 0.1744712]. The second pillar study showed also an oxidant non-significant potency for EK and S; grade: “without lesions” alterations 0.0090909 [-0.0339659 - 0.0521478] (p-values=0.6715). The 2 above studies were added trying to calculate a common diagnostic value for all the four variables. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> EPO as antioxidant is a significant recessing agent for the total of the 4 histologic variables; grade: “without lesions” alterations score 0.0136364 [-0.0887489+0.0614762] (<em>p</em>-value=0.7153).</p> C Τsompos, C Panoulis, A Triantafyllou, CG Zografos, E Gerakis, S Gerakis, A Papalois Copyright (c) 2022 Free Radicals and Antioxidants Sat, 17 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0500